Pure Tyranny?

According to Aristotle, there are three species of political system, and an equal number of deviations, which are a sort of corruption of them. The first political system is kingship. And Aristotle claims that deviation from kingship is tyranny. Even though both are monarchies, kingship and tyranny could be considered as two ends of a... Continue Reading →

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Man is not a ‘herd animal’ but a ‘horde animal’

W. Brown writes in Regulating Aversion: Tolerance in the Age of Identity and Empire: Man is not a “herd animal” but a “horde animal,” Freud writes at the conclusion of his lengthy critical discussion of other theorists of group psychology. A herd animal has an instinctual affinity for closeness, primary gregariousness, while the horde animal... Continue Reading →

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Who Should Rule? The Strife Between Plato and Democracy

The ongoing debate whether a state of nature, (a wild primitive state untouched by civilization, a definition by Wordink) has ever coincided with the timeline of the human history may demonstrate the immortality of the concept of governments, since the non-existence of state of nature in human history would mean that we always established authorities... Continue Reading →

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The Superiority of the Private Life

I would like to share this thought-provoking piece of Allan Bloom's interpretive essay of Plato's Republic. And reflect on how it could be understood when compared to the modern understanding of politics or ideal societies in which people try to wrap themselves in the boundaries drawn by ideologies but not one's own conscious mind. "The... Continue Reading →

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This is not yet a scientific age…

Delighted to have been introduced to this fascinating piece of writing by Richard Feynman (The Value of Science). What a beautiful mind... Makes one really wonder if so-called the "objectivity" of science indeed reduces the dimensions we can see the nature wrapped in and acts as a curtain between the most majestic masterpiece and the... Continue Reading →

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Living Without Thinking?

Some interesting words that I encountered recently: "Some live without thinking; some only think but cannot put their thoughts into practice... Those who live without thinking are the objects of the philosophy of others. Such persons always run from pattern to pattern, ceaselessly changing molds and forms, hectically struggling their whole life through, in deviations... Continue Reading →

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Our Immense World

A great scholar explains how almost all the ideologies and the economic systems fail by focusing on inanimate factors, instead of virtues and the human being itself. He also claims that the only way to progress as humankind is to seek change in human behavior and to promote our moral duties on each other. His... Continue Reading →

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Between Past and Future / Hannah Arendt

The liberal writer, concerned with history and the progress of freedom rather than with forms of government, sees only differences in degree here, and ignores that authoritarian government committed to the restriction of liberty remains tied to the freedom it limits to the extent that it would lose its very substance if it abolished it... Continue Reading →

The Republic / Plato

From Allan Bloom's interpretive essay: "The Republic shows us why Socrates was accused and why there was good reason to accuse him. Not only does he tell us about the good regime, but we see his effect on the young men he was said to have corrupted. Socrates, in leading them to a justice which... Continue Reading →

A Dying Colonialism / Frantz Fanon

There is not occupation of territory on the one hand and independence of persons on the other. It is the country as a whole, its history, its daily pulsation that are contested, disfigured, in the hope of a final destruction. Under these conditions, the individual's breathing is an observed, an occupied breathing. It is a... Continue Reading →

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